Maven项目管理工具:Maven自动化构建

杰米粉2021-09-30 09:48

    Maven自动化构建是一种方案,即当某个项目构建完成后(特别是有代码更新的情况下),所有依赖它的相关项目也应该开始构建过程,以确保这些项目的稳定运行。

    Maven的自动化构建主要通过如下两种方案实现:

    使用maven-invoker-plugin插件。

    使用持续集成(CI)服务器自动管理构建自动化,例如Jenkins(了解即可)。

    使用maven-invoker-plugin插件

    Maven社区提供了一个名为maven-invoker-plugin的插件,该插件能够用来在一组项目上执行构建工作,并检查每个项目是否构建成功,通过它就可以实现Maven的自动化构建。

    如下图所示,在D:\maven目录下有3个Maven项目。

Maven项目管理工具:Maven自动化构建

    其中,helloMaven项目的pom.xml配置如下。

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>net.biancheng.www</groupId>
    <artifactId>helloMaven</artifactId>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <name>helloMaven</name>
    <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
            <version>3.8.1</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <!-- 添加invoker 插件 -->
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-invoker-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>3.2.2</version>
                <configuration>
                    <debug>true</debug>
                    <!--设置 invkoer插件 添加的 pom 文件所在的文件夹  -->
                    <projectsDirectory>D:\maven</projectsDirectory>
                    <!-- 设置 invkoer插件 添加的 pom 文件 -->
                    <pomIncludes>
                        <pomInclude>secondMaven\pom.xml</pomInclude>
                        <pomInclude>thirdMaven\pom.xml</pomInclude>
                    </pomIncludes>
                </configuration>
                <executions>
                    <execution>
                        <id>id-integration-test</id>
                        <!-- 执行的目标 -->
                        <goals>
                            <goal>run</goal>
                        </goals>
                    </execution>
                </executions>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
</project>

    以上配置中,在build的plugins子元素中使用了一个plugin元素声明了一个构建期的插件maven-invoker-plugin,该插件配置中各元素含义如下:

    groupId:插件的项目组id;

    artifactId:插件的项目或模块id;

    version:插件的版本;

    projectsDirectory:需要构建项目的目录,该元素可单独使用,表示该目录下的所有Maven项目都会在当前项目构建完成后开始构建;

    pomIncludes:该元素内可以声明一个或多个pomInclude元素,需与projectDirectory元素配合使用,共同指定需要构建项目的pom.xml。

    secondMaven项目依赖于helloMaven,其pom.xml配置如下。

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>net.biancheng.www</groupId>
    <artifactId>secondMaven</artifactId>
    <packaging>jar</packaging>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <name>secondMaven</name>
    <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-site-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>3.7.1</version>
            </plugin>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-project-info-reports-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>3.0.0</version>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
            <version>3.8.1</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>net.biancheng.www</groupId>
            <artifactId>helloMaven</artifactId>
            <scope>system</scope>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
            <systemPath>D:\maven\helloMaven\target\helloMaven-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar</systemPath>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

    thirdMaven项目依赖于helloMaven,其pom.xml配置如下。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>net.biancheng.www</groupId>
    <artifactId>thirdMaven</artifactId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <name>thirdMaven</name>
    <!-- FIXME change it to the project's website -->
    <url>http://www.example.com</url>
    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <maven.compiler.source>1.7</maven.compiler.source>
        <maven.compiler.target>1.7</maven.compiler.target>
    </properties>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>junit</groupId>
            <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
            <version>4.11</version>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>net.biancheng.www</groupId>
            <artifactId>helloMaven</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <build>
        <pluginManagement>
            <plugins>
                <plugin>
                    <artifactId>maven-clean-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>3.1.0</version>
                </plugin>
                <plugin>
                    <artifactId>maven-resources-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>3.0.2</version>
                </plugin>
                <plugin>
                    <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>3.8.0</version>
                </plugin>
                <plugin>
                    <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>2.22.1</version>
                </plugin>
                <plugin>
                    <artifactId>maven-jar-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>3.0.2</version>
                </plugin>
                <plugin>
                    <artifactId>maven-install-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>2.5.2</version>
                </plugin>
                <plugin>
                    <artifactId>maven-deploy-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>2.8.2</version>
                </plugin>
                <plugin>
                    <artifactId>maven-site-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>3.7.1</version>
                </plugin>
                <plugin>
                    <artifactId>maven-project-info-reports-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>3.0.0</version>
                </plugin>
            </plugins>
        </pluginManagement>
    </build>
</project>

    打开命令控制台,执行如下命令,查看maven-invoker-plugin插件绑定的目标。

>mvn help:describe -Dplugin=invoker

    Maven命令执行结果如下。

[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------< org.apache.maven:standalone-pom >-------------------
[INFO] Building Maven Stub Project (No POM) 1
[INFO] --------------------------------[ pom ]---------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-help-plugin:3.2.0:describe (default-cli) @ standalone-pom ---
Downloading from central: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/maven/plugins/maven-invoker-plugin/maven-metadata.xml
Downloaded from central: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/maven/plugins/maven-invoker-plugin/maven-metadata.xml (888 B at 539 B/s)
[INFO] org.apache.maven.plugins:maven-invoker-plugin:3.2.2
Name: Apache Maven Invoker Plugin
Description: The Maven Invoker Plugin is used to run a set of Maven projects.
  The plugin can determine whether each project execution is successful, and
  optionally can verify the output generated from a given project execution.
Group Id: org.apache.maven.plugins
Artifact Id: maven-invoker-plugin
Version: 3.2.2
Goal Prefix: invoker
This plugin has 6 goals:
invoker:help
  Description: Display help information on maven-invoker-plugin.
    Call mvn invoker:help -Ddetail=true -Dgoal=<goal-name> to display parameter
    details.
invoker:install
  Description: Installs the project artifacts of the main build into the
    local repository as a preparation to run the sub projects. More precisely,
    all artifacts of the project itself, all its locally reachable parent POMs
    and all its dependencies from the reactor will be installed to the local
    repository.
invoker:integration-test
  Description: Searches for integration test Maven projects, and executes
    each, collecting a log in the project directory, will never fail the build,
    designed to be used in conjunction with the verify mojo.
invoker:report
  Description: Generate a report based on the results of the Maven
    invocations. Note: This mojo doesn't fork any lifecycle, if you have a
    clean working copy, you have to use a command like mvn clean
    integration-test site to ensure the build results are present when this
    goal is invoked.
  Note: This goal should be used as a Maven report.
invoker:run
  Description: Searches for integration test Maven projects, and executes
    each, collecting a log in the project directory, and outputting the results
    to the command line.
invoker:verify
  Description: Checks the results of maven-invoker-plugin based integration
    tests and fails the build if any tests failed.
For more information, run 'mvn help:describe [...] -Ddetail'
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time:  4.467 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2021-03-05T10:03:15+08:00
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    由以上执行结果可知,maven-invoker-plugin插件绑定的Maven生命周期阶段为integration-test及其以后,所以执行integration-test阶段及其以后的都可以触发该插件。

    跳转到D:\maven\helloMaven目录下,执行如下Maven命令。

mvn clean install

    执行结果如下。

[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] --------------------< net.biancheng.www:helloMaven >--------------------
[INFO] Building helloMaven 1.0-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] --------------------------------[ jar ]---------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-clean-plugin:2.5:clean (default-clean) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Deleting d:\maven\helloMaven\target
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:resources (default-resources) @ helloMaven ---
[WARNING] Using platform encoding (GBK actually) to copy filtered resources, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[INFO] skip non existing resourceDirectory d:\maven\helloMaven\src\main\resources
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:compile (default-compile) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Changes detected - recompiling the module!
[WARNING] File encoding has not been set, using platform encoding GBK, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[INFO] Compiling 2 source files to d:\maven\helloMaven\target\classes
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:testResources (default-testResources) @ helloMaven ---
[WARNING] Using platform encoding (GBK actually) to copy filtered resources, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[INFO] skip non existing resourceDirectory d:\maven\helloMaven\src\test\resources
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.1:testCompile (default-testCompile) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Changes detected - recompiling the module!
[WARNING] File encoding has not been set, using platform encoding GBK, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[INFO] Compiling 1 source file to d:\maven\helloMaven\target\test-classes
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-surefire-plugin:2.12.4:test (default-test) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Surefire report directory: d:\maven\helloMaven\target\surefire-reports
-------------------------------------------------------
T E S T S
-------------------------------------------------------
Running net.biancheng.www.AppTest
Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 0.008 sec
Results :
Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-jar-plugin:2.4:jar (default-jar) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Building jar: d:\maven\helloMaven\target\helloMaven-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-invoker-plugin:3.2.2:run (id-integration-test) @ helloMaven ---
[WARNING] File encoding has not been set, using platform encoding GBK, i.e. build is platform dependent!
[WARNING] Filtering of parent/child POMs is not supported without cloning the projects
[INFO] Building: secondMaven\pom.xml
[INFO]           secondMaven\pom.xml .............................. SUCCESS (2.6 s)
[INFO] Building: thirdMaven\pom.xml
[INFO]           thirdMaven\pom.xml ............................... SUCCESS (3.7 s)
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Build Summary:
[INFO]   Passed: 2, Failed: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-install-plugin:2.4:install (default-install) @ helloMaven ---
[INFO] Installing d:\maven\helloMaven\target\helloMaven-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar to D:\myRepository\repository\net\biancheng\www\helloMaven\1.0-SNAPSHOT\helloMaven-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar
[INFO] Installing d:\maven\helloMaven\pom.xml to D:\myRepository\repository\net\biancheng\www\helloMaven\1.0-SNAPSHOT\helloMaven-1.0-SNAPSHOT.pom
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time:  9.335 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2021-03-05T10:20:26+08:00
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    通过以上执行过程可以看到,在helloMaven构建完成后,Invoker插件对secondMaven和thirdMaven也进行了构建。

    注意:secondMaven和thirdMaven是否依赖于helloMaven,不会影响Invoker插件是否对它们进行构建。即使secondMaven和thirdMaven都不依赖于helloMaven,只要在Invoker插件中配置了这些项目,Invoker插件也依然会在helloMaven构建完成后,对它们进行构建。

    以上就是小编为大家整理发布的“Maven项目管理工具:Maven自动化构建”一文,更多相关内容尽在开课吧广场Java教程频道。

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